Born in Barcelona, showing his musical talent already at an early age. He gave his first concert at the age of six. The great teacher Frank Marshall, who assisted the concert, became responsible from then onwards for his further pianistic formation, transferring to him in the course of the following years the legacy of the Catalan school of piano dating back to Joaquim Malats, Ricard Viñes and Albéniz, as well as Granados and Frank Marshall himself. He later continued his studies in Paris under the guidance of Marcel Ciampi.
His exposition as a soloist of the orchestras of Bilbao and Barcelona in 1957 as well as obtaining several international awards (Rio de Janeiro, Queen Elisabeth of Belgium, Vianna da Motta of Lisboa, etc...) have placed him in the forefront of today's pianistists of his generation.
His career has developed as a soloist and interpreter of chamber music in Europe, America and Japan; as a soloist of important orchestras interpreting a great number of concerts from Bach to the contemporanies, including Beethoven, Chopin, Franck, Schumann, Ravel, Stravinsky, Poulenc, Saint-Saens, Prokofiev, Bartok, etc., and he has been directed by Janos Sandor, Peter Maag, Ros-Marbà, Ronald Zolmann, Walter Weller, Gary Bertini, Christopher Hogwood, etc...
Furthermore his prolonged dedication to chamber music has allowed him to cover all the trios, quartets and quintets for piano by Mozart, Beethoven, Brahms, Schubert, as well as other works by Dvoräk, Ravel, Shostakovich, Messiaen, Guinjoan, J.L. Turina, Casablancas, Brotons, Joaquin Turina, etc., collaborating with soloists such as Ludwig Streicher, Gonçal Comellas, Agustïn León-Ara, Michel Léthiec, Ashan Pillai and string quartets like Quartetto Stradivari, the Rafael Quartet, Lindsay Quartet, etc.
His discography includes the concerts for piano and orchestra by Luis de Pablo, Robert Gerhard, several volumes dedicated to Deodat de Séverac (Columna Música), Joaquin Nin-Culmell (Anacrusi), Frederic Mompou (EMI), chamber music, as a member of the Trio de Barcelona, Beethoven's Triple Concerto and the Mendelssohn and Dvorák Trios (Harmonia Mundi). He has also recently recorded a CD of the sonates for violin and piano by Pau Casals and Gaspar Cassadó in collaboration with Agustin León Ara (Columna Música) and the Sonatas for violin and piano, viola and piano, and violoncello and piano by Lluis Benejam (ASV), as well as re-edited the works by Frederic Mompou (EMI), The Suite Iberia and La Vega by Isaac Albéniz (Columna Música) and works by Mompou (Columna Música), that includes Variations on a Theme of Chopin, a piece that he premiered in Madrid in 1964. Among his recent recordings, special mention should be made to Goyescas by Enrique Granados (Columna Música).
He had held profesorship in the Masters program of performance at the University of A Coruña. He is professor at the Liceu Conservatory in Barcelona and Director of L'Escola de Música de Barcelona. He gives masterclasses in many different countries. Recently, he has been invited by Sidney University for teaching, as well as to perform several recitals in Australia, offering differents programs, including Spanish composers like Granados, Mompou, Albéniz and Falla. He has published a revised edition of the Suite Iberia of Isaac Albéniz, and he has been awarded the Albéniz Medal, bestowed by the Town Hall of Camprodon, for his contribution to the difussion of this great composer's music.
Born in Marseille in a musicians family, Jacques Rouvier studied with Vlado Perlemuter, Pierre Sancan and Jean Hubeau at the Paris National Superior Conservatory of Music, where he obtained first prizes in Piano and Chamber Music. He also completed his education with harmony and orchestra conducting.
He owes Pierre Barbizet and Jean Fassina a great pedagogic and human enrichment.
Prize winner of several competitions including the Viotti, Maria Canals, European Union of Radios and Long-Thibaud, he created in 1970 the Rouvier-Kantorow-Muller piano trio with whom he performed during 35 years.
He participated as a soloist or chamber musician in many festivals and academies (Prades,Spoleto, Aix- en- Provence, Kuhmo, Holland Music Sessions... ) and was invited to do master-classes all around the world.
His recordings of complete works for piano by Maurice Ravel and sonatas for violin and piano by Ravel and Debussy were awarded "Grand Prix du Disque“. He also recorded the complete works by Claude Debussy (DENON) and more than 30 other CDs.
Invited to participate in the juries of many prestigious international competitions (Tschaikowsky, Montreal, Marguerite-Long, Dublin, Leeds, Hamamatsu, Santander, Seoul, Geneve...) he has been teaching at CNSM de Paris since 1979 and also at UdK Berlin since 2006. He is in University Salzburg-Mozarteum since 2012.
Native of Warsaw, Poland Dr. Ivona Kaminska Bowlby is among the most versatile artists and pedagogues of her generation. Aside from an engaging career as an instructor for gifted students, Dr. Kaminska also serves as president of the Seattle International Piano Festival and Competition, and the artistic director and co-founder of the Chopin Academy of Music in Washington State. Together with her husband, Dr. Christopher Bowlby, she has developed one of the most original international piano competitions of today, the “SIPF”, which was recognized by the Wall Street Journal in 2010 as one of the world’s most inclusive of such events in today’s music scene.
Dr. Kaminska maintains a busy concert schedule as a soloist and chamber musician, having performed in such venues as Weill Recital Hall at Carnegie Hall in New York, and Nordstrom Recital Hall at Benaroya Hall in Seattle, Atherton Recital Hall in Hawaii, the Paderewski Museum in Warsaw, the Center for Contemporary Art in Warsaw, Castello Visconteo Sforzesco di Galiate, Italy, Salle Cortot, Paris, and many others. Sought-after as an adjudicator, she was invited to join the jury as part of the 2014 and 2016 Thalberg International Piano Competition in Naples, Italy among many other festivals. As an established educator and lecturer, she presents often for the various chapters of Music Teacher National Association in USA. Her lecture on the “Secrets of Winning a Piano Competition” was featured at the Music Teachers’ National Conference in New York City in 2012, and during the spring of 2017, she delivers a lecture on the Polish national dance music of Chopin during the Oregon State Music Teachers Association convention.
Dr. Kaminska regularly lectures on performance practice issues of the music by Frederic Chopin and J. S. Bach, and was interviewed several times by the music journal “Twoja Muza” in Poland. Dr. Kaminska has been invited throughout her career to teach and perform in numerous summer master classes and festivals, such as the Ashland International Piano Institute in Oregon, Tsar’s Village International Master Courses in St. Petersburg, Russia, and Puget Sound Chamber Music Workshops. Every summer she teaches at the Summer Institute of the Cornish College of the Arts, in Seattle, Washington.
Dr. Kaminska’s versatile musical background stems partly from her international studies. She has been awarded post-graduate degrees from prestigious institutions of three different countries: Masters of Arts and Post-Graduate Performance Diploma from the Frederic Chopin University of Music, Warsaw, Poland (1992 and 1993), Masters of Music from University of Nebraska-Lincoln (1998), and a Doctorate of Musical Arts degree from the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada (2003). During her studies in both North America and Europe, she received numerous scholarships and fellowships, and was a prize winner of several concerto competitions in the USA as well as a prize winner of the Contemporary Chamber Music Competition in 1993 in Warsaw.
She received many other prestigious national awards, including the Batory Foundation Scholarship, Poland, among others. She has participated in the Salzburg Music Akademie, Austria, Schleswig-Holstein Music Festival, Germany, as well as the music program in Duszniki-Zdroj, Poland. Some of her most influential teachers were Tatiana Shebanova, Andrzej Stefanski, Dr. James Cook, Dr. Mark Clinton, Dr. Henri-Paul Sicsic, Marek Jabłonski, and Boris Bloch.
Aside from her in-depth studies of the music by Chopin and Schumann, Dr. Kaminska devoted a large part of her North-American studies to the issues of Baroque Performance Practice on organ, harpsichord, and its applications to the modern piano. During her studies of J.S. Bach’s Performance Practice issues, she worked with such eminent Bach-scholars in the discipline as Dr. George Ritchie, Quentin Faulkner, Igor Kipnis, and Gregory Butler.
Currently, Dr. Kaminska shares her passion and knowledge with many talented students of the Chopin Academy of Music, in Issaquah, Washington and promotes the art of piano playing as an Artistic Director of the Seattle International Piano Festival.
Dr. Deirdre O'Donohue is a member of the artist piano and chamber music faculty at NYU's Steinhardt School in the Department of Music and Performing Arts Professions, and also the college and precollege faculties of Manhattan School of Music. She has performed solo and chamber recitals in Austria, the Netherlands, Italy, Canada and the United States. She has also given masterclasses and lecture/demonstrations at the Uniwersytet Muzyczny Fryderka Chopina in Warsaw, the Sibelius Academy in Helsinki, the Shanghai Conservatory, the Poona Music Society in India, the Rotterdam Conservatory, the World Piano Pedagogy Conference and at numerous music institutions throughout the United States, and Canada. Dr. O'Donohue received the Sparrendam Medal for performance in the Netherlands, and the Roger Phelps Award from New York University for her dissertation entitled “The Concept of Unity and Uniqueness in the Multi-Movement Works of Beethoven.”
Recent engagements: Curso de Piano at the Conservatorio Superior de Música de Castilla y Leon in Salamanca, Spain (3/2016); Summer faculty, coach and performer: Interharmony International Music Festival (Germany); Adamant Music School in Vermont; Summer Trios
(Pennsylvania); Lectures/demonstrations: the Uniwersytet Muzyczny Fryderyka Chopina (Warsaw, Poland); the Piano Teachers' Congress (Steinway Hall); the National Feis Ceoil Competition (Dublin); Adjudicator: Young Artists Festival in Seattle; the Royal Irish Academy of Music's Piano Festival; the MTNA National Conference; Ithaca College of Music; Leschetizsky Association, NYSMTA, NJMTA, NHMTA and external examiner for the Royal Irish Academy; Masterclasses at Interharmony International Music Festival (Germany); Yahama (NY); NYU, Queens College, New Hampshire, South Carolina; Intensive week-long courses in piano technique and interpretation at the Gijon Conservatory in Spain; solo recitals in Weill Recital Hall, NYU; Convention Clinician for the South Carolina MTA.
She has co-edited (with Prof. Henk Hillenaar), the book Schubert and Friendship by Michael Davidson which was published by the London publisher, Kahn & Averill in the Fall of 2012.
Deirdre O'Donohue is Past President of the NY State Music Teachers' Association, former Chairperson of the MTNA's Eastern Division High School Competition, and former Chairperson and founder of the NYSTMA Empire State Performance Competition. Since the summer of 2001 she has been on the faculty of the Adamant Music School in Adamant, Vermont where she is also the Coordinator for week-long piano masterclasses of Menahem Pressler, John O'Conor and Andre Laplante. She is also on the piano faculty of the Interharmony International Music Festival and coaches chamber music at Summertrios
Dr. O'Donohue holds degrees from New York University, the Hochschule für Musik und Darstellende Kunst in Vienna, Austria, and Mount Holyoke College in South Hadley, Massachusetts.
Stanislav Pochekin completed his studies at the Gnesin Institute in Moscow. Among his teachers were Eduard Mirzoian and Theodor Gutman. On the completion of his studies he taught at the Conservatoire in Ekaternburg (Russia).
In 1989 he went to Cuba where he worked as a professor in Havana at the “Instituto Superior del Arte”.
During his teaching career he has prepared more than 250 pianists for diplomas. For pedagogical achievements, S. Pochekin was awarded with an Honorable Medal by the Ministry of Culture of Russia.
His vast repertoire extend from the baroque to the contemporary music. He has performed as soloist and with orchestras conducted by very famous artists such as M. Paverman, F. Glushenko, I. Lapinsh. R.S. Ferrer, J. Medina and many others.
In 1993 he was appointed to the “Concervatorio del Liceo de Barcelona” in Spain.
His pupils have won more than 50 prizes in national and international competitions.
S. Pochekin gives masterclasses in Europe, Asia and America. He is a jury member at national and international competitions, including competitions in Italy, France, Spain, Portugal, Mexico, USA, Cuba and Russia.
Since 1995 S. Pochekin has been the Director of Piano Department at the Conservatory del Liceo in Barcelona and professor at the Klavierakademie in Murrhardt (Germany). He is the Artistic director of the International Piano Competition in Andorra.
ANTONIO SÁNCHEZ LUCENA
Antonio Sánchez Lucena is a Spanish professor and concert pianist. He began his studies in Córdoba with Carmen Flores, the aunt and professor of pianist Rafael Orozco. He then continued with Rafael Quero, obtaining the highest ratings and awards. He won the First Prize at the piano competition organized by "Musical" in Cordoba in 1977 and again in 1978.
In 1985, the Spanish conductor Jesus Lopez Cobos awarded him a scholarship for further studies at the Royal Academy of Music in London with Christopher Elton. He finished his studies with the highest distinctions. He has also worked with pianists such as Manuel Carra, Alexander Jenner, Stephen Kovacevich and Josef Kalestein, among others.
At eighteen he performed the complete cycle of Chopin Études Op.10 and Op. 25; this is a cycle that he has continued to play to great public acclaim.
He was awarded the First Prize at the Piano Competition "Ciudad de Albacete" (1988). He has recitals throughout Spain. Recording for Spanish radios and TVs. Performances at major Spanish venues such as Gran Teatro of Córdoba, Manuel de Falla Auditorium in Granada, Falla Hall of Seville, Palacio de Viana in Cordoba, Villanueva Hall at the Museo del Prado in Madrid, etc. Also International festivals such as Granada, Baza, Ubeda, Contemporary Music Festival of Córdoba and the International Piano Festival of Lucena. Solist with the Orchestra of Córdoba under the direction of Leo Brouwer, and other Andalusian Orchestras and conductors. Since 1987 he has taught at the Conservatories of Cordoba and Jaen.
Since 1992 he is a Professor and the Head of Piano Department at the Conservatory "Victoria Eugenia" of Granada. He is frequently invited as a jury member in piano competitions and he gives frequent masterclass. Among his students, are winners of first prizes in piano competitions. Since 1996 he is an Academician of the Royal Academy of Fine Letters and Fine Arts of Cordoba.
Professor Christopher Elton, FRAM, has been Professor Emeritus of the Royal Academy of Music of London since July, 2011, when he stepped down as Head of Keyboard at the Academy, a post he held for 24 years. At the time, Professor Jonathan Freeman-Atwood, Principal of the Academy, said: “I am delighted that Christopher's contribution to life at the Academy will remain significant. I feel exceptionally lucky that Christopher will continue with his important work as one of the Academy's and the UK's most renowned musical pedagogues.”
Christopher's international recognition has come as a result of the many successes of his students. Many have won international awards, including first prizes in the Van Cliburn and London World International Piano Competitions as well as in Jaen, Newport and Dudley. Further recent successes came in recent finals of the Tchaikovsky, Leeds, Dublin, Shanghai and Munich (ARD) and Taiwan International Competitions well as previous major awards in the international competitions in Santander, Geneva (CIEM), Geza Anda, Leipzig Bach, New Orleans, Pozzoli, Mazaro del Vallo, Porto, Madrid, Ettlingen and the Stravinsky Awards in the USA. Students have also been successful in the prestigious Young Concert Artists award in New York, as well as in the London Young Concert Artists Trust. Many of his students, such as Freddy Kempf, Ashley Wass and Yevgeny Sudbin are now successful recording artists with major contracts.
While his priority is to his work at the Academy, Christopher has also been much in demand overseas both as a teacher and as a jury member for international competitions including Moscow Tchaikovsky, Leeds International and many others. Within the last few years he has given masterclasses in the USA, Japan, Israel, Korea, Australia, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Spain, Germany and Ireland and Vietnam, many of them for important conservatories or universities. He has also been a jury member at competitions in Germany, Japan, Roumania and Ireland as well as in the UK. As an adjudicator he has worked both in festivals and on television in the UK, Canada and Hong Kong.
Christopher Elton was born in Edinburgh and received most of his musical education at the Royal Academy of Music in London, where he achieved the unusual distinction of gaining the Academy's highest performing award - the Dip. RAM - on both piano and 'cello. He was a prize winner in several British and international piano competitions and continued his studies with Maria Curcio-Diamand, playing and broadcasting regularly both as a soloist and in chamber music. At the same time he worked as a freelance 'cellist with the major London orchestras. Christopher Elton's international recognition has come as a result of the many successes of his students at the Royal Academy of Music. Many have won international awards, including first prizes in the Van Cliburn and London "World" International Piano Competitions as well as in Jaen, Newport and Dudley. Further recent successes came in recent finals of the Tchaikovsky, Leeds, Dublin, Shanghai, Taiwan and Munich (ARD) Competitions well as previous major awards in the international competitions in Santander, Geneva (CIEM), Geza Anda, Pozzoli, Mazaro delVallo, Porto, Madrid, Ettlingen and the Stravinsky Awards in the USA. Students have also been successful in the prestigious Young Concert Artists award in New York, as well as in the London Young Concert Artists Trust. Many of his students are now recording artists.
Bruno Rigutto studied the piano at the Paris Conservatory in the class of Lucette Descaves, chamber music with Jean Hubeau and composition and conducting.
After his graduation, he was laureate of the competitions Marguerite Long (1963) and Tchaikovsky (1966), in Paris and Moscow (headed by Emil Gilels). In 1962, he met Samson François, who took him as his only disciple for ten years.
Bruno Rigutto quickly began his international career, invited by the greatest conductors such as Carlo Maria Giulini, George Priest, Lorin Maazel, Leonard Bernstein, Zdenek Macal, Serge Baudo, Kurt Masur, Marc Soustrot, Antonello Allemandi, Laurent Petitgirard and others.
Bruno Rigutto dedicated a great part of his work to chamber music. He played with Isaac Stern, Mstislav Rostropovich, Arto Noras, Yo-Yo Ma, Barbara Hendricks, Michel Portal, Patrice Fontanarosa, Brigitte Engerer, Laurent Korcia, Pierre Amoyal, Henri Demarquette, Alexander Knyazev, Augustin Dumay, Quartets Debussy, Modigliani…
His discography is important. He recorded forty CDs for Decca, EMI, Forlane, Denon, Lyrinx, and received several Grand Prix du Disque and French awards, including “Victory of music”.
A box of his Decca recordings, from Haydn to Prokofiev, was edited in 2014.
Conductor and composer, he created original sountracks for several movies and theater, specifically staged by Bernard Murat.
He was made Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur in 2007.
Teaching takes an important place in his life: He has been professor for over twenty years at the Conservatoire National Supérieur de Musique et Danse de Paris, where he succeeded Maestro Aldo Ciccolini.
He was the teacher of many young soloists who now lead a great international career: Kotaro Fukuma, Romain Descharmes, Guillaume Coppola, Etsuko Hirose, Lise De la Salle, Claire- Marie Le Guay, Romain Hervé, Francois Dumont, Hélène Tysman...
In addition to his participation at the French national summer academies (Nice International Academy, Musicalp in Tignes, etc.), he is regularly invited to lead masterclasses in Europe, China, Korea and Japan (Toho College, Sendai, Nagoya), and currently in the Barcelona Piano Academy.
Living in Paris, Bruno Rigutto now teaches at the École Normale de Musique Alfred Cortot, and since September 2014, he teaches and prepares pianists for international competitions at the Schola Cantorum of Paris.
Since arriving in Seattle in 2002, Dr. Christopher Bowlby has established himself as one of the most sought-after piano pedagogues, lecturers, and adjudicators in the area. Aside from his successful career as an instructor of highly accomplished piano students, Dr. Bowlby is also director and vice-president of the Seattle International Piano Festival and Competition, as well as program director of the Chopin Academy of Music in Issaquah, Washington. As an accomplished teacher of many award winning students, in 2012, Dr. Bowlby was invited to present on a joint panel, the “Secrets of Winning a Competition” during the Music Teachers’ National Conference in NYC.
Having performed in such prestigious musical centers as the Weill Recital Hall in Carnegie Hall in New York City, Benaroya Hall and Meydenbauer Center in Seattle, Atherton Recital Hall in Honolulu Public Radio, among others, his playing has been acclaimed for its warmth of sound and integrity to the musical text. Recent engagements have included performances at the prestigious Salle Cortot in Paris, the Southern Oregon University piano series in Ashlad, OR, Southern Louisiana Piano Festival, and he was invited to join the jury as part of the 2014 and 2016 Thalberg International Piano Competitions in Naples, Italy.
Previously a winner of several young artists’ and concerto competitions, he has been featured numerous times on listener-supported and Public Radio stations, both as a speaker as well as a pianist, including a live performances of Bach’s Partita No. 4 in D Major, BWV 828 among others on King FM in Seattle. His extensive repertoire shows his expertise both in the monumental romantic masterworks such as Brahms’ “Handel Variations” and Schumann’s “Symphonic Etudes” as well as new works by living composers, including John Corigliano, Jeff Junkinsmith, Laura Kaminsky, David Mitchell, and Owen Bloomfield. Equally at home with chamber music literature, Mr. Bowlby performed Beethoven’s Sonata in A major with cellist, Yo-Yo Ma while being still a student at UNL, and frequently performs four-hand and duo piano music with his wife, Ivona Kaminska as well as many other chamber music ensembles within the greater Seattle area. Throughout his international studies, he has coached with such eminent artists as Marek Jablonski, Henri-Paul Sicsic, Mark Clinton, Boris Berman, Stéphane Lemelin, Patricia Michaelian, and Craig Sheppard.
His secondary academic interest in music theory led him to study with some of today’s most prominent theorists, including Henry Klumpenhouwer, Richard Kurth, John Rahn, and Jonathan Bernard. Dr. Bowlby’s research led him to new discoveries of religious symbolic conveyance in Olivier Messiaen’s “Vingt regards sur l’Enfant-Jésus”.
Formerly, Dr. Bowlby was on the faculty of Mount Royal College in Richmond, Canada, University of British Columbia, Shoreline Community College and University of Washington, and has taught in the Ashland International Piano Institute in the University of Southern Oregon, and Tsar’s Village International Master Course in St. Petersburg, Russia. Currently Dr. Bowlby shares his passion and knowledge with many ambitious students in the Academy that he founded and directs, the Chopin Academy of Music in Issaquah, Washington.
Hortense Cartier-Bresson enrolled at the Conservatoire National Supérieur de Musique et de Danse de Paris at the age of 15, where she obtained no less than five “premiers prix”. Later admitted to the “cycle de perfectionnement”, she met with the great Hungarian pianist Gÿorgy Sebök and was invited to study in his class at the University of Indiana in Bloomington (USA).
Rapidly noticed as “one of the most remarkable pianists of her generation”, she obtained the 3d prize at the Liszt-Bartok Contest of 1981 in Budapest (1st prize not awarded). Thereafter, a brilliant career started leading to recitals or solo performances on the international stage with great orchestras such as the Orchestre de Paris directed by Ricardo Chailly and the Detroit Symphony Orchestra directed by Antal Dorati.
She was appointed to a piano professorship at the Conservatoire National Supérieur de Musique et Danse de Paris in 2011.
A singular and passionate musician, Hortense Cartier-Bresson approaches music of all kinds with the highest integrity. She is especially appreciated as a chamber musician. She has played with many others including Roger Muraro, Raphaël Oleg, Ayako Tanaka, Philippe Graffin, Pierre Fouchenneret, François Salque, Henri Demarquette, Xavier Gagnepain and the Quatuor Ébène.
The pianist David Kuyken made his debut in the Great Hall of the Concertgebouw in Amsterdam and in the Queen Elizabeth Hall in London, where he studied with Peter Feuchtwanger. He was prizewinner at the International Piano Competition in Santander in Spain. There he also received the prize for best interpretation of contemporary music.
David Kuyken is a very versatile pianist. He has played with various orchestras at home and abroad under such conductors as Comissiona, Montgomery, Haenchen, Lazarjev, Ros Marba, Vedernikov, Vonk, Ostmann, Brüggen and Spanjaard. In 2001 he and his duo partner, Brenno Ambrosini made a succesful debut with the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra. In 2003 followed his solo debut with this orchestra. As a chambermusician David Kuyken frequently partners violinist Janine Jansen, Candida Thompson and Ilya Grubert. He also appeared with the Prazak String Quartet and Mandelring Quartet. As a recitalist David Kuyken has toured widely in the Netherlands and other European countries, and in the United States, South America and Japan. He performs regularly on Dutch national radio and has recorded for the BBC.
David Kuyken has recorded various Dutch piano concertos with the Radio Orchestra’s for CD. His solo CDs with Dutch composers and piano sonatas by Schubert were highly acclaimed by the press. Next season recordings will follow of works by Brahms and a CD with works by Reger, Liszt and Franck. David Kuyken is professor of piano at the Conservatory in Amsterdam and The Hague.
He is a frequent adjudicator and regularly gives master classes at home and abroad.